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|Title:||In vivo analysis of human LHX3 enhancer regulation|
|Authors:||Rhodes, Simon J.;Day, Richard N.;Harrington, Maureen A.;Herring, B. Paul;Skalnik, David Gordon;Park, Soyoung|
|subject:||LHX3;Enhancer;Pituitary gland -- Pathophysiology;Transcription factors -- Pathophysiology;Genetic regulation -- Research;Adenohypophysis;Pituitary gland -- Diseases -- Research;Mutation (Biology);Zinc proteins -- Metabolism;Human molecular genetics -- Research;Gonadotropin;Cell differentiation;Molecular association -- Research -- Analysis;Biochemistry -- Technique|
|Description:||Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)|
The LHX3 transcription factor is essential for pituitary gland and nervous system development in mammals. In humans, mutations in the LHX3 gene underlie combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) disease featuring deficits in anterior pituitary hormones and defects in the nervous system. The mechanisms that control temporal and spatial expression of the LHX3 gene are poorly understood. The proximal promoters of the human LHX3 gene are insufficient to guide expression in vivo and downstream elements including a conserved 7.9 kilobase (kb) enhancer region appear to play a role in tissue-specific expression in the pituitary and nervous system. In this study, I characterized the activity of this downstream enhancer region in regulating gene expression at the cellular level during development. Human LHX3 enhancer-driven Cre reporter transgenic mice were generated to facilitate studies of enhancer actions. The downstream LHX3 enhancer primarily guides gene transcription in αGSU-expressing cells secreting the TSHβ, LHβ or FSHβ hormones and expressing the GATA2 and SF1 transcription factors. In the developing nervous system, the enhancer serves as a targeting module for expression specifically in V2a interneurons. These results demonstrate that the downstream LHX3 enhancer is important in specific endocrine and neural cell types but also indicate that additional regulatory elements are likely involved in LHX3 gene expression in other cell types. Further, these studies demonstrate significant gonadotrope cell heterogeneity during pituitary development, providing insights into the cellular physiology of this key reproductive regulatory cell. The human LHX3 enhancer-driven Cre reporter transgenic mice provide a valuable tool for further developmental studies of cell determination and differentiation in the pituitary and nervous system. Furthermore understanding the regulation of human LHX3 gene will help develop tools to better diagnose and treat pituitary CPHD disease.
|Appears in Collections:||Theses, Dissertations, and Doctoral Papers|
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