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Title: Patterns and rates of exonic de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorders
Authors: Neale, Benjamin Michael;Kou, Yan;Liu, Li;Ma'ayan, Avi;Samocha, Kaitlin Elisabeth;Sabo, Aniko;Lin, Chiao-Feng;Stevens, Christine;Wang, Li-San;Makarov, Vladimir;Polak, Pazi Penchas;Yoon, Seungtai;Maguire, Jared;Crawford, Emily L.;Campbell, Nicholas G.;Geller, Evan T.;Valladares, Otto;Shafer, Chad;Liu, Han;Zhao, Tuo;Cai, Guiqing;Lihm, Jayon;Dannenfelser, Ruth;Jabado, Omar;Peralta, Zuleyma;Nagaswamy, Uma;Muzny, Donna;Reid, Jeffrey G.;Newsham, Irene;Wu, Yuanqing;Lewis, Lora;Han, Yi;Voight, Benjamin F.;Lim, Elaine;Rossin, Elizabeth Jeffries;Kirby, Andrew;Flannick, Jason A.;Fromer, Menachem;Shakir, Khalid;Fennell, Tim;Garimella, Kiran;Banks, Eric;Poplin, Ryan;Gabriel, Stacey;DePristo, Mark;Wimbish, Jack R.;Boone, Braden E.;Levy, Shawn E.;Betancur, Catalina;Sunyaev, Shamil R.;Boerwinkle, Eric;Buxbaum, Joseph D.;Cook, Edwin H.;Devlin, Bernie;Gibbs, Richard A.;Roeder, Kathryn;Schellenberg, Gerard D.;Sutcliffe, James S.;Daly, Mark Joseph
Year: 2013
Description: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are believed to have genetic and environmental origins, yet in only a modest fraction of individuals can specific causes be identified1,2. To identify further genetic risk factors, we assess the role of de novo mutations in ASD by sequencing the exomes of ASD cases and their parents (n= 175 trios). Fewer than half of the cases (46.3%) carry a missense or nonsense de novo variant and the overall rate of mutation is only modestly higher than the expected rate. In contrast, there is significantly enriched connectivity among the proteins encoded by genes harboring de novo missense or nonsense mutations, and excess connectivity to prior ASD genes of major effect, suggesting a subset of observed events are relevant to ASD risk. The small increase in rate of de novo events, when taken together with the connections among the proteins themselves and to ASD, are consistent with an important but limited role for de novo point mutations, similar to that documented for de novo copy number variants. Genetic models incorporating these data suggest that the majority of observed de novo events are unconnected to ASD, those that do confer risk are distributed across many genes and are incompletely penetrant (i.e., not necessarily causal). Our results support polygenic models in which spontaneous coding mutations in any of a large number of genes increases risk by 5 to 20-fold. Despite the challenge posed by such models, results from de novo events and a large parallel case-control study provide strong evidence in favor of CHD8 and KATNAL2 as genuine autism risk factors.
Standard no: Neale, Benjamin M., Yan Kou, Li Liu, Avi Ma'ayan, Kaitlin E. Samocha, Aniko Sabo, Chiao-Feng Lin, et al. 2013. Patterns and rates of exonic de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorders. Nature 485(7397): 242-245.
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