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Title: Low Levels of Peripheral CD161++CD8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) Cells Are Found in HIV and HIV/TB Co-Infection
Authors: Wong, Emily B.;Akilimali, Ngomu Akeem;Govender, Pamla;Sullivan, Zuri A.;Cosgrove, Cormac;Pillay, Mona;Lewinsohn, David M.;Bishai, William R.;Walker, Bruce D.;Ndung'u, Thumbi;Klenerman, Paul;Kasprowicz, Victoria O.
subject: Biology;Immunology;Immune Cells;T Cells;Immunopathology;Microbiology;Virology;Co-Infections;Medicine;Clinical Research Design;Cross-Sectional Studies;Infectious Diseases;Bacterial Diseases;Tuberculosis;Viral Diseases;HIV;Retrovirology and HIV immunopathogenesis
Year: 2013
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Description: Background: High expression of CD161 on CD8+ T cells is associated with a population of cells thought to play a role in mucosal immunity. We wished to investigate this subset in an HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) endemic African setting. Methods: A flow cytometric approach was used to assess the frequency and phenotype of CD161++CD8+ T cells. 80 individuals were recruited for cross-sectional analysis: controls (n = 18), latent MTB infection (LTBI) only (n = 16), pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) only (n = 8), HIV only (n = 13), HIV and LTBI co-infection (n = 15) and HIV and TB co-infection (n = 10). The impact of acute HIV infection was assessed in 5 individuals recruited within 3 weeks of infection. The frequency of CD161++CD8+ T cells was assessed prior to and during antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 14 HIV-positive patients. Results: CD161++CD8+ T cells expressed high levels of the HIV co-receptor CCR5, the tissue-homing marker CCR6, and the Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cell TCR Vα7.2. Acute and chronic HIV were associated with lower frequencies of CD161++CD8+ T cells, which did not correlate with CD4 count or HIV viral load. ART was not associated with an increase in CD161++CD8+ T cell frequency. There was a trend towards lower levels of CD161++CD8+ T cells in HIV-negative individuals with active and latent TB. In those co-infected with HIV and TB, CD161++CD8+ T cells were found at low levels similar to those seen in HIV mono-infection. Conclusions: The frequencies and phenotype of CD161++CD8+ T cells in this South African cohort are comparable to those published in European and US cohorts. Low-levels of this population were associated with acute and chronic HIV infection. Lower levels of the tissue-trophic CD161++ CD8+ T cell population may contribute to weakened mucosal immune defense, making HIV-infected subjects more susceptible to pulmonary and gastrointestinal infections and detrimentally impacting on host defense against TB.
Standard no: Wong, E. B., N. A. Akilimali, P. Govender, Z. A. Sullivan, C. Cosgrove, M. Pillay, D. M. Lewinsohn, et al. 2013. “Low Levels of Peripheral CD161++CD8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) Cells Are Found in HIV and HIV/TB Co-Infection.” PLoS ONE 8 (12): e83474. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083474.
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