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Title: Early life environment and natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases
Authors: Guo, Abra Y;Stevens, Betsy W;Wilson, Robin G;Russell, Caitlin N;Cohen, Melissa A;Sturgeon, Holly C;Thornton, Anna;Giallourakis, Cosmas;Khalili, Hamed;Nguyen, Deanna D;Sauk, Jenny;Yajnik, Vijay;Xavier, Ramnik J;Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N
subject: Breastfeeding;Early life;Microbiome;Crohn’s disease;Surgery
Year: 2014
Publisher: BioMed Central
Description: Background: Early life exposures may modify risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC)). However, the relationship between early life exposures and natural history of IBD has not been previously examined. Methods: This single center study included patients with CD or UC recruited in a prospective IBD registry. Enrolled patients completed a detailed environmental questionnaire that assessed various early life environmental exposures. Our primary outcome was requirement for disease-related surgery in CD and UC. Logistic regression models defined independent effect of early life exposures, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Our study included 333 CD and 270 UC patients. Just over half were female with a median age at diagnosis of 25 years. One-third of the cohort had history of bowel surgery (31%) and nearly half had used at least one biologic agent (47%). Among those with CD, being breastfed was associated with reduced risk of CD-related surgery (34% vs. 55%), while childhood cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased risk. On multivariate analysis, history of being breastfed (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09–0.46) and cigarette smoke exposure as a child (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.10–4.29) remained independently associated with surgery. None of the early life variables influenced disease phenotype or outcome in UC. Conclusion: A history of being breastfed was associated with a decreased risk while childhood cigarette smoke exposure was associated with an increased risk of surgery in patients with CD. Further investigation to examine biological mechanisms is warranted. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12876-014-0216-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Standard no: Guo, A. Y., B. W. Stevens, R. G. Wilson, C. N. Russell, M. A. Cohen, H. C. Sturgeon, A. Thornton, et al. 2014. “Early life environment and natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases.” BMC Gastroenterology 14 (1): 216. doi:10.1186/s12876-014-0216-8.
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