Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://dl.umsu.ac.ir/handle/Hannan/55540
Title: Circadian Medicine
Authors: Christopher S. Colwell
subject: Circadian Medicine
Year: 2015
Publisher: Willey blackwell
Abstract: Fundamental Concepts 1 1 Cytosolic and Transcriptional Cycles Underlying Circadian Oscillations 3 Michael H. Hastings and John S. O’Neill 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Assembling the transcriptional feedback loop 5 1.2.1 Discovering clock genes and their actions in lower species 5 1.2.2 Discovering clock genes and their actions in mammals 6 1.2.3 Imaging the transcriptional clock in real time: a multitude of cellular oscillators appears 6 1.2.4 Elaborating the core transcriptional clockwork 8 1.3 Keeping the transcriptional clockworks in tune 9 1.3.1 Entrainment of the SCN transcriptional clockwork 9 1.3.2 Entrainment of transcriptional clocks in peripheral tissues 10 1.3.3 Local tissue clocks direct local transcriptional and posttranscriptional programs 11 1.4 Building posttranslational mechanisms into the circadian pacemaker 13 1.4.1 Posttranslational control of the clock: localization and stability of clock proteins 13 1.4.2 Metabolic regulation of the transcriptional clockwork 13 1.4.3 Cause versus effect in circadian transcriptional regulation 14 1.5 Is the transcriptional clock paramount? 15 1.5.1 Cytosolic rhythms and the SCN pacemaker 15 1.5.2 Totally transcription‐free pacemaking 16 1.5.3 A general model for mammalian cellular circadian timekeeping 17 1.6 Conclusion: cytoscillators, clocks and therapies 18 References 18 2 Molecular Determinants of Human Circadian Clocks 25 Steven A. Brown 2.1 Molecular elements of human clocks: a brief review 25 2.2 Peripheral and central clocks 26 2.3 Signaling to peripheral circadian clocks 28 2.4 Human peripheral and central clocks 29 2.5 Human genetics 29 2.6 Technologies for measurement of human circadian clocks 30 2.7 Cellular methods 30 2.8 Omics‐based methods to analyze human clocks 32 2.9 Summary and outlook 33 References 33 3 The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN): Critical Points 37 Christopher S. Colwell, Paul Witkovsky, and Rae Silver 3.1 SCN is site of master circadian pacemaker in mammals 37 3.2 SCN receives photic information through a specialized light detection pathway 39 vi cont ents 3.3 SCN neurons are endogenous single cell oscillators that generate rhythms in neural activity 40 3.4 The SCN has circuit level organization that is just beginning to be unraveled 42 3.5 Coupling with the SCN circuit is mediated by a set of peptides with VIP on top of the hierarchy 44 3.6 SCN outputs 44 3.6.1 SCN neurons are directly neurosecretory cells 45 3.6.2 Body temperature rhythms as an output 47 3.6.3 SCN regulates the autonomic nervous system 47 3.6.4 Melatonin is a key hormone under circadian regulation 47 3.6.5 HPA axis is another important endocrine network regulated by the circadian system 49 3.6.6 The SCN regulates the arousal of the central nervous system 49 3.6.7 The SCN circuit controls the temporal patterning behaviors (activity, sleep, feeding) with widespread implications for our bodily function 50 3.7 SCN in aging and disease 50 References 51 4 Sleep and Circadian Rhythms: Reciprocal Partners in the Regulation of Physiology and Behavior 57 Ralph Mistlberger 4.1 Introduction 57 4.2 What is sleep 59 4.3 Circadian regulation of sleep 60 4.3.1 Behavioral studies: human sleep 60 4.3.2 Behavioral studies: rodent models 63 4.3.3 Neural mechanisms 64 4.3.4 Molecular mechanisms, local oscillators and local sleep 66 4.4 Reciprocity: sleep–wake feedback to the circadian clock 69 4.4.1 Feedback from waking states 69 4.4.2 Feedback from sleep states 71 4.5 Conclusions: Circadian clocks and sleep are intertwined processes 73 References 73 5 Circadian Regulation of Arousal and its Role in Fatigue 81 David R. Bonsall and Mary E. Harrington 5.1 Defining arousal 81 5.2 Brain structures important for arousal 83 5.3 Neurochemicals signaling the states of arousal 84 5.4 Circadian regulation of the arousal system 86 5.5 Influence of input pathways on circadian regulation of arousal 88 5.6 Sustained states of fatigue: a disorder of the arousal network? 88 5.7 Conclusions 90 References 91 Part II Circadian Regulation of Major Physiological Systems 95 6 Physiology of the Adrenal and Liver Circadian Clocks 97 Alexei Leliavski and Henrik Oster, 6.1 Introduction 97 6.2 Circadian control of adrenal function 98 6.2.1 Glucocorticoids (GCs) 99 6.2.2 Mineralocorticoids (MCs) 99 6.2.3 Catecholamines (CAs) 99 6.2.4 Adrenal clocks 100 6.2.5 Local control of MC rhythms 100 6.2.6 Local control of GC rhythms 101 6.3 Circadian control of liver function 101 6.3.1 Glucose metabolism 102 6.3.2 Lipid metabolism 103 6.3.3 Detoxification 103 6.3.4 Hepatocyte clocks 104 6.3.5 Local control of energy metabolism 104 6.3.6 Local control of biotransformation 104 6.4 Conclusion 105 References 105 cont ents vii 7 Nutrition and Diet as Potent Regulators of the Liver Clock 107 Yu Tahara and Shigenobu Shibata 7.1 Introduction 107 7.2 Food is a “zeitgeber”: The FEO in the brain 107 7.2.1 Food entrainment and food anticipatory activity 107 7.2.2 Role of the SCN on the FEO 108 7.2.3 FEO formation and characteristics in the brain 108 7.3 The FEO in peripheral tissues 109 7.3.1 Discovery of the FEO in peripheral tissues 109 7.3.2 Effect of meal frequency and pattern on the FEO 110 7.3.3 Role of clock genes in FAA and FEO in the brain and FEO in peripheral tissues 110 7.4 What should we eat? What types of food can stimulate the peripheral clock? 110 7.4.1 Role of nutrients in the FEO 110 7.4.2 Foods beyond nutrients 111 7.4.3 Signal transduction in peripheral FEO 111 7.5 When should we eat? Application to human life science 112 7.6 Circadian rhythm and obesity and diabetes 113 7.6.1 Feeding frequency and patterns affect obesity and diabetes 113 7.6.2 Effect of rotation work and shift work on obesity, diabetes, and cancer 114 7.6.3 Effect of calorie restriction on circadian rhythm and life span 114 7.6.4 Role of circadian rhythm in pharmacological and nutritional actions 115 References 116 8 The Cardiovascular Clock 119 R. Daniel Rudic 8.1 Introduction 119 8.2 The vascular clock 119 8.3 Circadian clock regulation of the endothelial cell layer of blood vessels 120 8.4 The circadian clock in vascular disease 121 8.5 The circadian clock and vascular cell signaling 122 8.6 The circadian rhythm in blood pressure, nighttime hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in humans 123 8.7 Diabetes, obesity, and blood pressure 125 8.8 AT influences the circadian rhythm in experimental hypertension 126 8.9 The circadian clock and fluid balance 127 8.10 The circadian clock and peripheral vascular resistance 127 8.11 Conclusion 130 References 130 9 Hypertension Caused by Disruption of the Circadian System: Blood Pressure Regulation at Multiple Levels 135 Hitoshi Okamura, Miho Yasuda, Jean‐Michel Fustin, and Masao Doi 9.1 Introduction 135 9.2 Effects of deleting Cry genes 135 9.3 Reduced α‐adrenoceptor responsiveness in peripheral vessels and primary aldosteronism of Cry‐null mice 138 9.4 Rapid blood pressure control system: enhanced baroreflex in Cry‐null mice 139 9.5 Conclusion 141 References 141 10 Chronobiology of Micturition 143 Akihiro Kanematsu and Hiromitsu Negoro 10.1 Introduction 143 10.2 Human studies 144 10.2.1 Children and nocturnal enuresis 144 10.2.2 Aging and nocturia 144 10.2.3 Nocturnal polyuria 144 10.2.4 Daily change in bladder capacity 145 10.2.5 Central control of the kidneys and the bladder 145 10.3 Animal models 146 10.3.1 Rats 146 10.3.2 Mice 146 viii cont ents 10.4 The circadian clock and micturition 147 10.5 The clock in the bladder 148 10.5.1 The bladder has rhythm: demonstration of the circadian clock in the bladder 148 10.5.2 Connexin43 (Cx43) is a clockcontrolled gene in the bladder 149 10.6 Future directions 150 10.6.1 Basic research 150 10.6.2 Clinical research 151 References 151 11 Disruption of Circadian Rhythms and Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Contributions to Insulin Resistance and Beta‐cell Failure 155 Aleksey V. Matveyenko 11.1 Introduction 155 11.2 Mechanisms underlying pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus: interaction between insulin resistance and beta‐cell failure 156 11.2.1 Circadian disruption and predisposition to Type 2 diabetes mellitus: accumulating evidence from epidemiological, clinical and animal studies 159 11.3 Mechanisms underlying the association between circadian disruption and T2DM; potential role of obesity and insulin resistance 160 11.4 Mechanisms underlying the association between circadian disruption and T2DM; potential role of impaired beta‐cell secretory function and mass 162 11.5 Conclusion 165 References 166 12 Circadian Clock Control of the Cell Cycle and Links to Cancer 169 T. Katherine Tamai and David Whitmore 12.1 Introduction 169 12.2 Epidemiology 169 12.3 Does circadian clock disruption have any relevance in a clinical setting? 170 12.4 Circadian clock control of the cell cycle in healthy tissues 171 12.5 How might the cellular circadian clock regulate cell cycle timing? 173 12.6 Clock disruption and cancer 177 12.7 Does alteration in clock gene expression in human tumors correlate with the survival of patients? 178 12.8 Circadian‐based chemotherapy (Chronotherapy): timing cancer treatment to improve survival 178 12.9 Conclusion 180 References 180 13 How Shift Work and a Destabilized Circadian System may Increase Risk for Development of Cancer and Type 2 Diabetes 183 An Pan, Elizabeth Devore, and Eva S. Schernhammer,, 13.1 Introduction 183 13.2 Shift work and cancer 184 13.2.1 Epidemiologic studies of shift work and breast cancer risk 184 13.2.2 Epidemiologic studies of shift work and prostate cancer 190 13.2.3 Epidemiologic studies of shift work and risk of other cancers 193 13.2.4 Summary of evidence for an association between shift work and cancer 193 13.2.5 Consideration of obesity in epidemiologic studies of night shift work and cancer risk 194 13.3 Shift work and obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes 194 13.3.1 Epidemiological studies of shift work and obesity and metabolic syndrome 194 13.3.2 Epidemiological studies of shift work and type 2 diabetes 202 13.3.3 Pathways linking shift work to type 2 diabetes 203 13.4 Conclusions and perspective of future studies 205 References 205 14 Circadian Rhythms in Immune Function 211 Kandis Adams, Oscar Castanon‐Cervantes, and Alec J. Davidson 14.1 Introduction 211 14.2 Daily variations in health and disease 212 cont ents ix 14.3 Early evidence of circadian regulation on immunity 212 14.4 Clinical relevance of circadian regulation of the immune system 213 14.5 The circadian system communicates time of day information to immune cells and tissues 214 14.6 Immune effector cells under circadian regulation 214 14.6.1 Natural killer cells 214 14.6.2 Macrophages 215 14.6.3 T cells 215 14.6.4 B cells 215 14.7 Circadian disruption role in immune pathology and disease 216 14.8 The effects of clock gene alterations on immune functions 217 14.9 Conclusions 217 References 218 Part III Clocks in the Central Nervous System 221 15 Circadian Clock, Reward and Addictive Behavior 223 Urs Albrecht 15.1 Introduction 223 15.2 Evidence for a time of day basis of addictive behavior 223 15.3 Drugs, circadian clock genes and addictive behavior 224 15.3.1 Cocaine 224 15.3.2 Methamphetamine 225 15.3.3 Alcohol 226 15.3.4 Nicotine 226 15.3.5 Opioids 227 15.3.6 Cannabinoids 227 15.4 Links between feeding, addictive behavior and the clock 228 15.5 Treatment of addiction changing the circadian clock 229 References 231 16 How a Disrupted Clock may Cause a Decline in Learning and Memory 235 Christopher S. Colwell 16.1 Introduction 235 16.2 Molecular clockwork expressed in brain regions central to learning and memory including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex 236 16.3 The circadian clockwork regulates intracellular signaling pathways known to be important to learning and memory 237 16.4 The circadian system impacts electrical activity and synaptic plasticity 238 16.5 The circadian system regulates neuroendocrine secretions that are well known to alter learning and memory processes 240 16.6 Disruptions of the circadian timing system alter learned behavior 241 16.7 Conclusions 245 References 245 17 Circadian Rhythms in Mood Disorders 249 Colleen A. McClung 17.1 Introduction 249 17.2 Categories of rhythm disruptions 251 17.2.1 Entrainment 251 17.2.2 Amplitude 251 17.2.3 Period 251 17.2.4 Phase 252 17.3 Seasonal affective disorder 252 17.4 Treatments for mood disorders alter rhythms 253 17.4.1 Bright light therapy (BLT) 253 17.4.2 Melatonin 253 17.4.3 Sleep deprivation therapy (SDT) 254 17.4.4 Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) 255 17.4.5 Antidepressant and mood stabilizing drugs 255 17.4.6 Future drugs 256 17.5 Human genetic studies 257 17.6 Animal studies 257 17.6.1 Light–dark manipulations 258 17.6.2 The SCN and mood 258 17.6.3 Circadian gene mutations 259 17.7 SCN output‐rhythmic hormones and peptides 260 17.8 Regulation of mood‐related brain circuits by the SCN and circadian genes 262 17.9 Neuroinflammation 263 x cont ents 17.10 Cell cycle regulation/ neurogenesis 264 17.11 Conclusions 265 References 265 18 Sleep and Circadian Rhythm Disruption in Psychosis 271 Stuart N. Peirson and Russell G. Foster 18.1 Introduction 271 18.2 Psychosis 273 18.2.1 The psychosis spectrum 273 18.2.2 The social and economic impact of psychosis 275 18.3 Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in psychosis 275 18.3.1 Schizophrenia 275 18.3.2 Bipolar disorder 276 18.3.3 Relationship between psychosis and SCRD 277 18.4 Possible mechanisms underlying SCRD in psychosis 277 18.4.1 Common neurotransmitters 279 18.4.2 Synaptic dysfunction 279 18.4.3 Internal desynchrony 279 18.4.4 Stress 280 18.4.5 Synaptic homeostasis 280 18.5 Conclusions 280 References 281 19 Alzheimer’s Disease and the Mistiming of Behavior 283 Roxanne Sterniczuk and Michael Antle 19.1 Introduction 283 19.2 Behavioral changes 283 19.2.1 Sundowning behavior 285 19.3 Physiological changes 285 19.3.1 Sleep architecture 285 19.3.2 Core body temperature 286 19.3.3 Melatonin secretion 286 19.4 Neurological changes 286 19.4.1 The circadian pacemaker 287 19.4.2 Sleep regulatory regions 288 19.5 Modeling AD 289 19.6 Chronobiological treatment of AD symptomology 290 19.6.1 Melatonin 290 19.6.2 Bright light therapy 292 19.6.3 Structured environment and behavioral modification 292 19.7 Conclusion 292 References 293 20 Circadian Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease 295 Christopher S. Colwell 20.1 Introduction 295 20.2 Dysfunction in the circadian system may contribute to the nonmotor symptoms of PD 296 20.3 Dopaminergic treatments for the motor symptoms of PD may contribute to circadian disruption 297 20.4 PD models show sleep and possible circadian disruption 298 20.5 Possible underlying mechanisms 300 20.6 Conclusion 301 References 302 21 Circadian Dysfunction in Huntington’s Disease 305 A. Jennifer Morton 21.1 Introduction 305 21.2 Mechanisms underlying sleep and circadian rhythm generation 305 21.3 Circadian disruption in HD 306 21.4 Circadian disruption in animal models of HD 306 21.5 Circadian disruption of peripheral clocks and metabolism in HD 311 21.6 Pharmacological manipulation of circadian disruption in HD mice 311 21.7 Environmental modulation of circadian disruption in HD mice 311 21.8 Clinical changes in sleep in HD 312 21.9 Disturbance in sleep architecture in HD 312 21.10 Pathology underlying changes in sleep and circadian activity in HD 313 21.11 The orexin system in HD 313 21.12 The role of non‐SCN oscillators in HD 314 21.13 Consequences of sleep–wake disturbance in HD 314 21.14 Cognitive dysfunction and mood disturbance in HD 315 21.15 Management of circadian disturbance in HD 315 21.16 Conclusions 317 References 318 cont ents xi 22 The Aging Clock 321 Stephan Michel, Gene D. Block, and Johanna H. Meijer 22.1 Introduction 321 22.2 The effects of aging on rhythmic behaviors 321 22.2.1 Humans 321 22.2.2 Rodents 322 22.2.3 Drosophila 322 22.3 The effects of aging on components of the circadian system 323 22.3.1 Ocular pacemaker of Aplysia 323 22.3.2 In vivo studies in rodents 323 22.3.3 Rodent in vitro work 325 22.3.4 Clock neuron physiology 326 22.4 Molecular rhythms in steady state 328 22.4.1 Intracellular SCN oscillators 328 22.4.2 Peripheral oscillators 328 22.5 The effects of aging on the resetting behavior of central and peripheral oscillators 329 22.6 The effects of the circadian system on aging and age‐related disease: Circadian misalignment and longevity 330 22.6.1 Drosophila 330 22.6.2 Circadian misalignment and longevity in rodents 330 22.7 Therapeutic possibilities for agerelated circadian disorders 331 22.8 Conclusions 332 References 332 23 Can we Fix a Broken Clock? 337 Analyne M. Schroeder and Christopher S. Colwell 23.1 Introduction 337 23.2 Light therapy 339 23.3 Scheduled meals 340 23.4 Scheduled exercise 341 23.5 Scheduled sleep 343 23.6 Pharmacological targeting of the circadian system 343 23.7 Conclusions 345 References 346 Index 35
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