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Title: HLA Polymorphism in Algerian Children With Lymphomas
Authors: Assia Galleze;Rachida Raache;Habiba Amroun;Nacera Cherif;Mohamed Fadli;Fethi Mec¸abih;Bachira Mecheti
subject: HLA class I and class II, major histocompatibility complex, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma
Year: 2015
Abstract: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are the 2 types of lymphomas that represent the third most common childhood malignancy. NHL are tumors derived from cells of lymphocytic lineage. In children, lymphoblastic lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma predominate.1,2 Unlike adult NHL, childhood NHL is high grade, always diffuse, and often associated with extranodal diseases, but they respond favorably to intensive chemotherapy.1 HL is a common lymph-node cancer of germinal center B-cell origin, which is characterized by malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells mixed with a dominant background population of reactive lymphocytes and other inflammatory cells.3 The most accepted histologic classification, the Rye classification system, defines four histologic subtypes of HL: lymphocytic predominance, mixed cellularity, lymphocytic depletion, and nodular sclerosis. The lymphocytic predominance subtype is more common among male and younger patients, and usually presents as clinically localized disease. The mixed cellularity subtype is more common in children aged 10 years or younger, and frequently presents as advanced disease with extranodal involvement. The lymphocytic depletion subtype is rare in children, but it is common in HIV patients. Nodular sclerosis is the most frequent subtype, affecting children and adolescents.4 Multiple etiological factors are involved in lymphoma pathogenesis, including viral infection,5 immune deficiencies, 6 environmental agents, and genetic factors.7 The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been studied extensively, and many human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations have been reported.8,9 Hodgkin disease was the first disease defined to be associated with the MHC, which is the most polymorphic gene complex found in humans.10 Since then, diseases have been shown to be increased in individuals with particular HLA gene polymorphisms. However, the importance of the HLA system for regulating the susceptibility to tumors has recently become increasingly clear.11 The MHC is a cluster of very extensively studied genes located on the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21.1-21.3), spanning a 4Mb DNA fragment. MHC classes I and II coding for the HLA play a central role in the adaptive immune response, and their role in the host antitumor immune response has been studied extensively.12
Appears in Collections:Journal of pediatric hematology oncology 2015

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